An index is a tool for tracking the performance of a collection of assets in a consistent manner. The performance of a group of securities meant to mirror a particular market segment is often measured through indexes.

The prices of specific equities are used to calculate the stock index (generally a weighted average). Financial organizations and investors frequently use it to compare the return on different investments and to define the market.

In simple terms, you don't need to follow these particular companies closely to gain a sense of how the markets are doing. To give you this information, the significant businesses have been pre-packaged and are under constant observation. This pre-packaged market information tool is known as the "Market Index."

In India, there are two primary market indices. The National Stock Exchange is represented by the CNX Nifty and the Bombay Stock Exchange by the S&P BSE Sensex.

Types of Stock Market Indices

There are three types of stock market Indices in India-

  1. Benchmark Indices- The benchmark indices of the Indian stock market are CNX NIFTY and BSE SENSEX. Both indexes display market activity. For instance, if NIFTY crashed, it indicates that the Indian stock market as a whole underperformed.
    Nifty 50 & BSE Sensex- a collection of top 50 and 30 best-performing stocks are the indicators of the National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange, respectively. Due to the fact that they select businesses that adhere to the highest standards, this group of equities is often referred to as a benchmark index.
  2. Sectoral Indices- Some indices serve to show a specific economic sector. For instance, S&P BSE Healthcare represents all of India's listed pharmaceutical companies. The NIFTY Bank index, for instance, shows the overall performance of Indian banks.
  3. Market-cap based indices- Indexes based on market capitalization are those that measure the value of equities. A stock's market capitalisation provides information about its value. It is the result of the market price at the time and the number of outstanding shares in the company.
  4. Other Indices- Other indexes, such the S&P BSE 500, NSE 100, and S&P BSE 100, among others, are a little larger and have a large number of stocks listed on them.
    While stocks listed on the Sensex may have a high capacity for risk, you might not. Not every requirement can be met by an investment portfolio. Investors must therefore maintain focus and make investments where they feel secure.

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